SAYYIDINA HAZRAT MUHAMMAD (PBUH)
The Quran is the light of knowledge and belief,and the Holy Prophet is its practical example and an excellent exemplar.
Certainly you have in the Messenger of Allah an excellent pattern (of conduct).(Al-Ahzaab, Al-Quran)
His life was molded according to the Quran and he gave a practical demonstration of whatever the Quran said. If we look at any portion of the Quran, we will be looking at his life.
The Holy Quran has devoted a complete surah by his name, Muhammad, and his name is mentioned right in the beginning.
And believe in that which is revealed to Muhammad and it is the Truth from their Lord. (Muhammad, Al-Quran)
Early Life Of Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad (P.B.U.H)was born in Mecca ( Makkah), Arabia, on Monday, 12 Rabi' Al-Awwal (2 August A.D. 570). His mother, Aminah, was the daughter of Wahb Ibn Abdu Manaf of the Zahrah family. His father, 'Abdullah, was the son of Abdul Muttalib. His genealogy has been traced to the noble house of Ishmael, the son of Prophet Abraham in about the fortieth descend. Muhammad's father died before his birth.
Before He was six years old his mother died, and the doubly orphaned Muhammad was put under the charge of his grandfather Abdul Muttalib who took the most tender care of him. But the old chief died two years afterwards. On his deathbed he confided to his son Abu Talib the charge of the little orphan.
When Muhammad (P.B.U.H) was twelve years old, He accompanied his uncle Abu Talib on a mercantile journey to Syria, and they proceeded as far as Busra. The journey lasted for some months. It was at Busra that the Christian monk Bahira looks Little Muhammad. He is related to have said to Abu Talib: 'Return with this boy and guard him against the hatred of the Jews, for a great career awaits your nephew."
In his early years, Muhammad (P.B.U.H) was not free from the cares of life. He had to watch the flocks of his uncle, who, like the rest of the Bani Hashim, had lost the greater part of his wealth.
When Muhammad (P.B.U.H) was twenty five years old, he traveled once more to Syria as a factor of a noble and rich Quraishi widow named Khadijah; and, having proved himself faithful in the commercial interests of that lady, he was soon rewarded with her hand in marriage. This marriage proved fortunate and singularly happy. Khadijah was much the senior of her husband, but in spite of the disparity of age between them, the most tender devotion on both sides existed.
Until He reached thirty years of age, Muhammad (P.B.U.H)was almost a stranger to the outside world. Since the death of his grandfather, authority in Mecca was divided among the ten senators who constituted the governing body of the Arabian Commonwealth. There was no such accord among them as to ensure the safety of individual rights and property. Though family relations afforded some degree of protection to citizens, yet strangers were frequently exposed to persecution and oppression. In many cases they were robbed, not only of their goods, but even of their wives and daughters. At the instigation of the faithful Muhammad, an old league called the Federation of Fudul, i.e., favors was revived with the object of repressing lawlessness and defending every weak individual - whether Meccan or stranger, free or slave - against any wrong or oppression to which he might be the victim within the territories of Mecca.
When Muhammad (P.B.U.H)reached thirty-five years,In rebuilding the Sacred House of the Ka'ba in 605 A.D, the question arose as to who should have the honor of raising the black stone, the most holy relic of that House, into its proper place. Each tribe claimed that honor. The senior citizen advised the disputants to accept for their arbitrator the first man to enter from a certain gate. The proposal was agreed upon, and the first man who entered the gate was Muhammad "Al-Ameen." His advice satisfied all the contending parties. He ordered the stone to be placed on a piece of cloth and each tribe to share the honor of lifting it up by taking hold of a part of the cloth. The stone was thus deposited in its place, and the rebuilding of the House was completed without further interruption.
These are nearly all the public acts related by historians in which Muhammad took part in the first fifteen years of his marriage to Khadijah. As for his private life he is described to have been ever helpful to the needy and the helpless. His uncle Abu Talib had fallen into distress through his endeavors to maintain the old position of his family. Muhammad, being rather rich at this time by his alliance with Khadijah, tried to discharge part of the debt of gratitude and obligation which he owed to his uncle Abu Talib by undertaking the bringing up and education of his son 'Ali. A year later he adopted 'Akil, another of his uncle's sons.
Khadijah bore Muhammad (P.B.U.H) three sons and four daughters. All the males died in childhood.
About this time, Muhammad (P.B.U.H)set a good example of kindness, which created a salutary effect upon his people. His wife Khadijah had made him a present of young slave named Zaid Ibn Haritha, who had been brought as a captive to Mecca and sold to Khadijah. When Haritha heard that Muhammad possessed Zaid, he came to Mecca and offered a large sum for his ransom. Where upon Muhammd said: "Let Zaid come here, and if he chooses to go with you, take him without ransom; but if it be his choice to stay with me, why should I not keep him?' Zaid, being brought into Muhammad's presence, declared that he would stay with his master. Muhammad no sooner heard this than he took Zaid by the hand and led him to the black stone of Ka'ba, where he publicly adopted him as his son, to which the father acquiesced and returned home well satisfied.
Muhammd (P.B.U.H)was now approaching his fortieth year, For years after his marriage, Muhammad had been accustomed to secluding himself in a cave in Mount Hira, a few miles from Mecca. To this cave he used to go for prayer and meditation, sometimes alone and sometime with his family. There, he often spent the whole nights in deep thought and profound communion with the Unseen yet All-Knowing Allah of the Universe. It was during one of those retirements and in the still hours of the night, when no human sympathy was near, that an angel Jibrail came to him to tell him that he was the Messenger of Allah sent to reclaim a fallen people to the knowledge and service of their Lord.
Renowned compilers of authentic traditions of Islam agree on the following account of the first revelations received by the Prophet.
Muhammad would seclude himself in the cave of Mount Hira and worship three days and nights. He would, whenever he wished, return to his family at Mecca and then go back again, taking wihim the necessities of life. Thus he continued to return to Khadijah from time to time until one day the revelation came down to him and the Angel Gabriel (Jibrail) appeared to him and said: "Read!" (Iqra) But as Muhammad was illiterate, having never received any instruction in reading or writing, he said to the angel: "I am not a reader." The angel took a hold of him and squeezed him as much as he could bear, and then said again: "Read!" Then Prophet said: "I am not a reader." The Angel again seized the Prophet and squeezed him and said: "Read! In the Name of Your Lord, Who has created (all that exists), has created a man from a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood). Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous, Who has taught (the writing) by the pen, has taught man that which he knew not." (Al-Quran).
Then the Prophet repeated the words with a trembling heart. He returned to Khadijah from Mount Hira and said: "Wrap me up! Wrap me up!" She wrapped him in a garment until his fear was dispelled. He told Khadijah what had occurred and that he was becoming either a soothsayer or one smitten with madness. She replied: "Allah forbid! He will surely not let such a thing happen, for you speak the truth, you are faithful in trust, you bear the afflictions of the people, you spend in good works what you gain in trade, you are hospitable and you assist your fellow men. Have you seen anything terrible?" Muhammad replied: "Yes," and told her what he had seen. Whereupon, Khadijah said: "Rejoice, O dear husband and be cheerful. He is Whose hands stands Khadijah's life bears witness to the truth of this fact, that you will be the prophet to this people."
Then she arose and went to her cousin Waraqa Ibn Naufal, who was old and blind and who knew the Scriptures of the Jews and Christians, and is stated to have translated them into Arabic. When she told him of what she had heard, he cried out: "Holy! Holy! Verily, this is the Namus (The Holy Spirit) who came to Moses. He will be the prophet of his people. Tell him this and bid him to be brave at heart." When the two men met subsequently in the street, the blind old student of the Jewish and Christian Scriptures spoke of his faith and trust: "I swear by Him in Who hand Waraqa's life is, Allah has chosen you to be the prophet of this people. They will call you a liar, they will persecute you, they will banish you, and they will fight against you. Oh, that I could live to those days. I would fight for these." And he kissed him on the forehead.
The first vision was followed by a considerable period, during which Muhammad suffered much mental depression. The angel spoke to the grieved heart of hope and trust and of the bright future when he would see the people of the earth crowding into the one true faith. His destiny was unfolded to him, when, wrapped in profound meditation, melancholy and sad, he felt himself called by a voice from heaven to arise and preach. O you (Muhammad) enveloped (in garments)! Arise and warn! And your Lord (Allah) magnify! (Al-Quran).He arose and engaged himself in the work to which he was called. Khadijah was the first to accept his mission. She was to believe in the revelations, to abandon the idolatry of her people and to join him in purity of heart and in offering up prayers to Allah the Almighty.
At the beginning of his mission, Muhammad - hereinafter called the Prophet - opened his soul only to those who were attached to him and tried to free them from the gross practices of their forefathers. After Khadijah, his cousin' Ali was the next companion. The Prophet used often to go into the desert around Mecca with his wife and young cousin that they might together offer their heart felt thanks to the Lord of all nations for His manifold blessings. Once they were surprised by Abu Talib, the father of 'Ali. He said to the Prophet: "O son of my brother, what is this religion you are following?" "It is the religion of Allah of His Angels, of His Messengers and of our ancestor Abraham," answered the Prophet. "Allah has sent me to His servants, to direct them towards the truth, and you, O my uncle, are the most worthy of all. It is meet that I should thus call upon you and it is meet that you should accept the truth and help in spreading it."
Abu Talib replied: "Son of my brother, I cannot abjure the religion of my fathers; but by the Supreme Lord, while I am alive, none shall dare to injure you." Then turning towards 'Ali, the venerable chief asked what religion was his. Ali answered: "O father, I believe in Allah and His Prophet and go with him." Abu Talib replied: "Well my son, he will not call you to anything except what is good, therefore you are free to go with him."
After 'Ali, Muhammad's adopted son Zaid became a convert to the new faith. He was followed by Abu Bakr, a leading member of the Quraish tribe and an honest, wealthy merchant who enjoyed great consideration among his compatriots. He was but two years younger than the Prophet. His adoption of the new faith was of great moral effect. Soon after, five notables presented themselves before the Prophet and accepted Islam. Several converts also came from lower classes of the Arabs to adopt the new religion.
For three weary long years, the Prophet labored very quietly to deliver his people from the worship of idols. The Quraish had personal material interests in the old worship, and their prestige was dependent upon its maintenance.After three years of constant but quiet struggle, only thirty followers were secured. An important change now occurred in the relations of the Prophet with the citizens of Mecca. His compatriots had begun to doubt his sanity, thinking him crazy or possessed by an evil spirit. He now decided to appeal publicly to the Meccans, requesting them to abandon their idolatry. For this he arranged a gathering on a neighboring hill and there spoke to them of their folly in the sight of Allah in worshipping pieces of stone which they called their gods. He invited them to abandon their old impious worship and adopt the faith of love, truth and purity.
Now the Prophet and his followers became subject to some persecution and indignity. The hostile Quraish prevented the Prophet from offering his prayers at the Sacred House of the Ka'ba; they pursued him wherever he went; they covered him and his disciples with dirt and filth when engaged in their devotions; they scattered thorns in the places which he frequented for devotion and meditation. But He was full of confidence in his mission, even when on several occasions he was put in imminent danger of losing his life.
At this time Hamza, the youngest son of Abdul Muttalib, adopted Islam. Hamza was a man of distinguished bravery, an intrepid warrior, generous and true, whose heroism earned for him the title of the "Lion of Allah." He became a devoted adherent of Islam and everlost his life in the cause.
During this period, 'Umar Al-Khattab adopted Islam. In him the new faith gained a valuable adherent and an important factor in the future development and propagation of Islam. He had been a violent opposer of the Prophet and a bitter enemy of Islam. His conversion is said to have been worked by the miraculous effect on his mind of a Surah of the Quran which his sister was reading in her house, where he had gone with the intention of killing her for adopting Islam. Thus the party of the Prophet had been strengthened by the conversation by his uncle Hamza, a man of great valor and merit; and of Abu Bakr and 'Umar, both men of great energy and reputation. The Muslims now ventured to perform their devotions in public.
The Prophet continued preaching to the Arabs in a most gentle and reasonable manner.
The quraish who had been worshipping the idols for many years could not bear this. They became angry at him persuaded him to give up the preaching of Islam they also offered him wealth and reaches for this purpose they even send their representatives to hazrat Abu Talib the uncle of holy prophet, who was held high esteem to ask his nephew to stop the preaching of Islam. But nothing could dissuade him from his mission. He remained firm in his belief. "By God" he said, "if you put the sun on my right hand and moon on the other I would not give up my faith" this reply made the quraish furious. They became violent and threw stones at him. Hazrat Balal , his Negro slave was tortured time and again. Many other faithful muslims, were also ill-treated . But they were the true followers of the hazrat Muhammad and devotees of Allah. When the cruelties and humiliation crossed all bounds, hazrat Muhammad (p.b.u.h) advised the Muslims to migrate to Abyssinia. It was ruled by a Christian king Najashi. This king was kind ,just and noble.Hazrat Muhammad Mustafa's (p.b.u.h) life shows that he measured up to the highest standard of character and personality. Hazrat Ans(R.A) reports,"I served the holy prophet (p.b.u.h) for 10 years and in this long period he never spoke a harsh word to me, never scolded me and never showed displeasure at what I did. He never got angry with me for what I had forgotten. Or failed to do".It is very easy to say this but we can't find a single example of such forbearance, tolerance, patience and mercifullness.He is the best of all creation. he was modest and kind. Though he was the spiritual head of the muslims, and the master of his city, known as the city of prophet yet he helped both the rich and the poor. even his worst enemies called him the truthful and the trusted one. He said kind ness or politeness is as great a virtue as praying all through the night and fasting all through the day.when he began preaching islam , most of the people of makkah turned against him. He taught that there is but one Allah. the idols worshipped by the peoplewere nothying but pieces of wood and stone. It Was wrong to call them gods and worship them . he preached to the people that they should be good, honest, kind and virtuous and that they should shun all evil and dishonest. Hazrat Muhammad (p.b.u.h) suffered every cruelty of his opponents with extreme patience and never even spoke a harsh word in return. Once he was so severely hurt by the people of taif, so severely hurt by the people of taif, that blood trickled down his legs and filled his shoes.Even then he prayed"O Allah",forgive them,and soften their hearts for they know not.In the thirteenth year of prophet hood, the holy prophet (P.B.U.H) with his closest companion hazrat Abu Bakr (r.a) also left for madina, a town three hundred miles away.As soon as his departure was known,the infuriated chiefs of quraish sent search parties after him.This emigration to madina indcates Allah's glory.On reaching madina Hazrat Muhammed (P.B.U.H) established an Islamic society based on brother hood and universal peace.He established a common wealth based upon Islamic values.Tribal pride and superiority ended.Thus equality of rights was the most important feature of the Islamic common wealth.On the other hand it laid stress on purity of heart, cleanliness of the body and simplicity of life.